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Please send information on community resources to Suzanne Nicoletti Krase
NATIONAL CENTER ON ELDER ABUSE – ADMINISTRATION ON AGING
https://ncea.acl.gov/ (202) 898-2586
A Federally funded national resource for information and materials on abuse and neglect.
The NCEA serves as a national resource center dedicated to the prevention of elder mistreatment, and operates as a multi-disciplinary consortium of collaborators with expertise in elder abuse, neglect, and exploitation.
NATIONAL COMMITTEE FOR THE PREVENTION OF ELDER ABUSE
www.preventelderabuse.org (202) 682-4140
One of six partners that make up the National Center on Elder Abuse.
Proves information and materials on abuse and neglect.
NATIONAL COUNCIL FOR AGING CARE
Aging in Place is a resource hub for seniors and their families to learn more about the specific aspects of aging in place. You can visit our one stop shop for expert know-how in order to make the best decisions about in-home care, insurance, government assistance, and other financial resources, transportation options, and home remodeling. 2017 guide "Recognizing Elder Abuse" is now available on the website.
US POSTAL INSPECTION SERVICE
Report mail fraud, mail theft and identity theft to the U.S. Postal Inspection Service online: Tips provided on protecting seniors from telemarketing and mail fraud schemes, including sweepstakes.
NATIONAL AGING IN PLACE COUNCIL - NAIPC
NAIPC® was founded on the belief that an overwhelming majority of older Americans want to remain in their homes for as long as possible but lack awareness of home and community-based services that make independent living possible.
NATIONAL RESOURCE CENTER ON SUPPORTIVE HOUSING AND HOME MODIFICATION
Promotes aging in place and independent living for persons of all ages and abilities
THE COMPASSIONATE FRIENDS
www.compassionatefriends.org (877) 969-0010 or (630) 990-0010
Offers supportive services to bereaved parents, grandparents, and siblings after the death of a child of any age. Also manages an online support community.
www.caringinfo.org (800) 658-8898
A program of the National Hospice and Palliative Care Organization, providing many useful free publications about hospice, palliative care, long term planning, caregiving, bereavement, advanced directives, and work place issues. Offers free download of state-specific forms for living will and healthcare power of attorney. Bi-lingual staff and materials in Spanish available.
FUNERAL CONSUMERS ALLIANCE
www.funerals.org (800) 765-0107
Consumer-oriented education, referrals, and advocacy about funeral options.
HOSPICE EDUCATION INSTITUTE
www.hospiceworld.org (800) 331-1620 or (207) 255-8800
Maintains a comprehensive database and directory of hospice and palliative care programs. Offers referrals to hospice and palliative care programs, and provides general information about the philosophy and practice of hospice and palliative care.
HOSPICE FOUNDATION OF AMERICA
www.hospicefoundation.org (202) 638-5419
Educates and supports professionals and individuals regarding issues relating to caregiving, terminal illness, and bereavement. Site links to HFA’s hospice locator, newsletters, publications, videos, and media library of educational articles.
Service Program for Older People (SPOP) is the only agency in New York City entirely dedicated to meeting the behavioral health needs of older adults.
To request information about services for yourself or another person, including Bereavement Support, please call 212-787-7120 x514 or https://wwwspop.org/
CARING FROM A DISTANCE
www.cfad.org (202) 223-2556
Provides support to those taking care of an older loved one from a distance. Services include information about legal, financial, health care, and emotional issues; Caregiving Conferencing, in which a facilitator assists during a family conference call; and secure storage of medical and other information about your loved one for access by anyone you allow.
NATIONAL ELDERCARE LOCATOR
The National Eldercare Locator, a public service of the Administration on Aging, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, is a nationwide service that connects older Americans and their caregivers with information on senior services
NATIONAL FAMILY CAREGIVERS ASSOCIATION
www.nfcacares.org or www.thefamilycaregiver.org (800) 896-3650
Offers information, education, support, networking, public awareness, and advocacy, which empowers caregivers to act on behalf of themselves and their loved ones.
New York Memory Center NYMemorycenter.org 718-499-7701 - 199 14th Street, Brooklyn, New York Has caregiver support and respite programs for those caring for people with Alzheimer’s and related dementias.
Strategies for Long-Distance Caregivers
Published by Simmons University School of Nursing and Health Sciences:
WELL SPOUSE ASSOCIATION
A nonprofit membership organization which gives support to wives, husbands, and partners of the chronically ill and/or disabled. Connect to or start a local support group, use the online forum, or search the online resource list.
HEIGHTS AND HILLS
www.heightsandhills.org (718-596-8789) email@example.com
Heights and Hills provides case management and caregiver services in many Brooklyn neighborhoods, including Park Slope and Prospect Heights. Their services are provided for free to those over the age of 60 and their caregivers, without regard to race, religion, national origin, gender, disability, marital status, sexual orientation, or economic status.
New York Foundation for Senior Citizens
Case Management Program
Helping New York’s seniors enjoy healthier, safer, more productive and dignified lives in their own homes and communities and to help them avoid the need for premature institutionalization.
Park Slope Center for Successful Aging
Brenda Westphalen, Director
463A 7th Street, 718-832-3726
Monday – Friday Hours: 9 am-5 pm.
Reimagining the role of the senior center, the PSCSA is a neighborhood hub for people 60 and better. It is a thriving community center that embraces the wisdom and experience of those who have helped build our community, and offers opportunities for arts and education, physical exercise, a communal meal (lunch) and lively companionship. Call for additional information and to inquire about volunteer opportunities.
Prospect Hill Senior Center
Crystal Cooper, Director
283 Prospect Ave. bet 5th & 6th Aves, 718-499-9574
Monday - Friday Hours: 8 a.m. - 4 p.m.
For 42+ years in the neighborhood, the PHSC mission has been to help members to stay active and healthy so that they can remain in their homes. In addition to healthy aging activities, we feature guest speakers, arts & crafts classes, exercise (including Tai Chi, Chair Yoga & Stretch), daily bingo and access to computers. Low-cost breakfast and lunch are provided daily.
NYC Department for the Aging Falls Prevention Checklist: https://www1.nyc.gov/assets/doh/downloads/pdf/ip/prevent-falls-checklist.pdf
National Council on Aging 12 Question Fall Risk Screener: https://www.ncoa.org/healthy-aging/falls-prevention/falls-free-checkup/?utm_source=popup&utm_medium=website&utm_campaign=FPAW2020
Additional Resources from NCOA: https://d2mkcg26uvg1cz.cloudfront.net/wp-content/uploads/Falls-Prevention-Resources-for-Older-Adults-and-Caregivers-1.pdf
CAMP FRIENDSHIP - Pop-up Food Pantry
339 8th Street (between 5th & 6th Avenues) .
Saturdays 9-12 (set-up, packing, accepting donations of non-perishable food)
Saturdays 12-2pm - Distribution of bags of produce, pantry items and prepared meals.
Deliveries are made 2x a week to homebound seniors-(call 718 965-3695 or email CampFriendshipFoodPantry@gmail.com to request food delivery) .
Accepting volunteers/donations of food and/or money
CHIPS - Pop up
200 4th Avenue, Brooklyn, NY 11217-3180 (between Sackett and Degraw Streets)
Meals are served 11:30am – 1pm, Mondays – Saturdays
The traditional dine-in soup kitchen is still closed, and in it’s place, Pop-Up at CHiPS is fueled by generous donations of individually-packaged meals, sandwiches,snacks and water from generous neighbors, local restaurants and food -non-profits. CHIPS serves around 350 meals daily.
Accepting donations of food and/or money.
FEEDING AMERICA (formerly America's Second Harvest)
www.feedingamerica.org (800) 771-2303
Find a local food bank, soup kitchen, or food pantry through the nation's largest charitable hunger-relief organization.
FOOD STAMPS - USDA Food and Nutrition Service
www.fns.usda.gov/snap/ (703) 305-2286
Information about the Food Stamp Program, including application and eligibility.
NEW YORK “CITYMEALS ON WHEELS”
www.citymeals.org/ (212) 687-1234
Citymeals on Wheels provides home-delivered meals to New York's homebound elderly.
Provides a continuous lifeline of nutritious food and human company to homebound elderly New Yorkers in need, helping them to live with dignity in their own familiar homes and communities.
PEOPLE IN NEED
Coney Island Avenue, Brooklyn, NY 11230
Phone : 1-201-878-4332
FOOD BOX DISTRIBUTION -Every Wednesday and Saturday 2:30 PM TO 4:30 PM
Pick up and deliveries available. (Accepting volunteers/donations)
South Brooklyn Mutual Aid
Provides free grocery boxes through a mass distribution project in Sunset Park and surrounding area.
Access NYC is a free service that helps you find out if you may qualify for over 30 city, state, and federal benefit programs. You can apply online for certain programs through ACCESS NYC.
AGING CONNECT - A NYC direct link to aging services
Emergency Preparedness for Older Adults
FDA FOR OLDER PEOPLE
www.fda.gov/oc/seniors (888) INFO-FDA / (888) 463-6332
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has numerous articles, brochures, and other publications with information for older people on a wide range of health issues, including arthritis, cancer, health fraud, nutrition, and proper use of medication
Links to selected online publications, databases, websites, support systems and self-help groups, as well as government agencies and nonprofit organizations for seniors and others.
Medicare is a health insurance program for people age 65 or older, people under age 65 with certain disabilities, and people of all ages with End-Stage Renal Disease (permanent kidney failure requiring dialysis or a kidney transplant).
MEDICARE RIGHTS CENTER
www.medicarerights.org (212) 869-3850, (877) 794-3570 An independent source for people with Medicare. Services include interactive web tool; hotline; help comparing plans, enrollment, claims, and appeals; prescription drug benefits; professional education and advocacy.
Get All the Information you need to Apply for Medicaid in New York.
State Medicaid Program · CHIP Profile · Verify your Eligibility · Online Medicaid Guide
NATIONAL LIBRARY SERVICE (NLS) for the Blind and Physically Handicapped
NLS, Library of Congress, is a free library program of braille and audio materials circulated to enrolled patrons. People may be eligible for the program if they are blind, have a visual disability that prevents them from reading regular print, or have a physical disability that keeps them from being able to hold a book.
NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF SENIOR HEALTH
Easily accessible aging-related health information for adults aged 60 and over.
NEW YORK CITY DEPARTMENT OF AGING - DFTA
Provides essential services for seniors by supporting community-based organizations to provide needed programs throughout the five boroughs. Hot meals, senior centers, home-delivered meals, case management, home care, transportation, health care plan evaluation counseling, and legal services are services provided
NEW YORK CITY CONSUMER AFFAIRS -Free Income tax preparation
If you earn $62,000 or less, you may qualify for FREE TAX PREP services, including online filing and in-person filing with an IRS certified VITA/TCE volunteer preparer.
Social Security, Disability Issues, Supplemental Security Income (SSI)
www.socialsecurity.gov or www.ssa.gov
(800) 772-1213, Monday-Friday, 7 a.m.7 p.m. Eastern Time; recorded information available 24 hours
TTY: (800) 325-0778
US DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS
www.va.gov (800) 827-1000
Administers programs for veterans and their families, including health care, educational assistance, survivors’ benefits, and burial assistance.
US DEPT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS, OFFICE OF GERIATRIC AND EXTENDED CARE
Improves the quality of care for aging and chronically ill veterans by advocating for geriatrics and long-term care clinical programs. MSP, Medicaid, HEAP). Home visits are available for those with limited mobility (call 347-815-5930).
www.usa.gov (800) FED-INFO
Helps users access all government sites that provide services.
WOMEN'S CLUB OF NYC
http://resourceguide.wccny.org/ 2015 City Wide Brooklyn Guide to services and resources in New Cork City is available free at this website.
MEDICARE RIGHTS CENTER: Home Care Channel
www.medicarerights.org/ (877) 794-3570
Educates consumers, their families, caregivers, professional counselors, and clinicians about Medicare hospice and home health benefits for those with advanced illnesses.
MEDICARE AND HOME HEALTH CARE
Official government booklet from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid.
VISITING NURSE SERVICE OF NEW YORK - VNSNY
VNSNY offers a wide range of home health care services, including medical nursing services, management of chronic conditions, and care to meet the needs of every generation, from at-risk infants to those at the end of life.
MET COUNCIL'S "PROJECT METROPAIR"
(212) 453-9542/ fax(212) 453-9607
This project offers free home repair services (such as, winterization of window, doors, window lock repair, wood railing repair, smoke detector installation, etc.) not requiring a license to people over 60 years of age, who reside in New York City and who have a financial need.
NEW YORK FOUNDATION FOR SENIOR CITIZENS - HOME SHARING – HOME REPAIRS www.nyfsc.org/ (212)-962-7559
Helping New York’s seniors enjoy healthier, safer, more productive and dignified lives in their own homes and communities and to help them avoid the need for premature institutionalization. The Foundation's free Home Sharing Program helps link adult “hosts” with extra space.
Offers home repair assistance for eligible senior owners of condominiums and coops
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPEMENT
Information and resources to stay in your home, find an apartment, find other housing options, protect yourself from fraud, and stay active.
Register at Agebuzz to receive the weekly newsletter which connects you with the best info on aging on the web.
"Where grown-ups keep growing". See articles of interest to older adults.
OLD SCHOOL ANTI-AGEISM CLEARING HOUESE
Old School is a clearinghouse of free and carefully vetted resources to educate people about ageism and help dismantle it. You’ll find blogs, books, articles, videos, speakers, and other tools (workshops, handouts, curricula etc.) that are accessible to the general public. Our goal is to help catalyze a movement to make ageism (discrimination on the basis of age) as unacceptable as any other kind of prejudice.
RADICAL AGE MOVEMENT
https://theradicalagemovement.com/ Radical Age Movement, a grassroots nationwide effort that challenges traditional notions of aging and introduces new ideas for building co-creative and interdependent communities.
BROOKLYN PUBLIC LIBRARY FLIPSTER - FREE MAGAZINE ACCESS
BPL library members can access a large number of magazines, free. Go to My BPL. Click on "Articles and Databases". Scroll down to "FLIPSTER". Click on flipster and magazines are shown.
BROOKLYN PUBLIC LIBRARY - SENIOR SERVICES
The Brooklyn Public Library offers services for older adults which includes programs and services tailored to the 50+ audience.
BROOKLYN LIFELONG LEARNING
Brooklyn Lifelong Learning is an independent, 501c3, nonprofit program on the campus of Brooklyn College. BLL fosters peer learning among adults through non-credit classes, seminars and cultural activities designed and conducted by members and volunteers in an informal, non-competitive and intellectually stimulating environment,
MUSEUM OF MODERN ART
The Museum of Modern Art has a free program for people 65 and older, including free studio workshops.
Senior Planet is a community of older adults who are using technology to learn and live a new, engaged aging—with attitude. SEE LINK above for weekly, free face to face, tech advice.
DOROT - UNIVERSITY WITHOUT WALLS (877) 819-9147 or (212) 769-2850
Through DOROT’s interactive telephone and online programs, seniors and caregivers only need a phone or computer to join a vibrant community. See website for latest calendar and registration information. This telephone conference call program brings learning, laughter, friendship, and support to individuals in their own homes.
www.lynda.com The Brooklyn Public Library (BPL) is pleased to offer its cardholders access to lynda.com's library of instructional videos. lynda.com is an online learning platform that offers over 3,000 courses (and over 130,000 videos) in subjects including business, software, design. Normally, using lynda.com requires a paid subscription, but as a BPL library cardholder you can access Lynda.com content from any computer with an Internet connection simply by entering your 14-digit BPL library card barcode and 4-digit PIN.
SENIOR CENTER WITHOUT WALLS Online/Phone Programs www.seniorcenterwithoutwalls.org (877) -797-7299
Senior Center Without Walls began in 2004 with the goal of providing a community for isolated seniors. See their website for the Fall calendar and registration information.
ALL GROUPS ARE LISTED IN PACIFIC TIME.
WELL CONNECTED https://covia.org/services/well-connected/
Offers activities, education, support groups, and friendly conversation over the phone or online. All groups are accessible by phone from wherever you are at no cost.
Assists people living with low incomes by providing referrals to local legal aid and public interest law offices, basic information about legal rights, self-help information, court information, links to social service agencies, and more.
NATIONAL GUARDIANSHIP ASSOCIATION
www.guardianship.org (877) 326-5992
Membership organization that establishes and promotes a nationally recognized standard of excellence in guardianship in the event that an institution or agency has court-appointed a guardian for an adult who has demonstrated that s/he is not capable of making his or her own decisions regarding personal or financial matters.
NATIONAL HEALTH LAW PROGRAM
www.healthlaw.org (310) 204-6010
Improves health care for America's working and unemployed poor, minorities, the elderly and people with disabilities. NHELP provides information about legal services programs, community-based organizations, the private bar, and other legal providers.
NATIONAL SENIOR CITIZENS LAW CENTER
www.nsclc.org (202) 289-6976
Promotes the independence and well-being of low-income elderly and disabled individuals by providing attorneys and policy makers with litigation assistance, research and consulting support, national policy representation, training and manuals, and periodicals.
ASSISTED LIVING 411
Provides information and advocacy for assisted living facilities geared toward the following four groups: potential residents, current residents, direct care staff, and administrative staff.
LONG TERM CARE COMMUNITY COALITION
www.ltccc.org (212) 385-0355
Works to improve the lives of long term care consumers by strengthening regulation, surveillance, and enforcement. Their projects include Assisted Living 411 and Nursing Home 411, listed below.
NURSING HOME 411
Provides information and advocacy about nursing homes and specialized nursing facilities.
NURSING HOME COMPARE
Provides detailed information about the past performance of every Medicare and Medicaid certified nursing home in the country.
GERIATRIC MENTAL HEALTH FOUNDATION
www.gmhfonline.org (301) 654-7850
Raises awareness of psychiatric and mental health disorders affecting the elderly, eliminates the stigma of mental illness and treatment, promotes healthy aging strategies, and increases access to quality mental health care for the elderly.
MENTAL HEALTH AMERICA
www.nmha.org (800) 969-6642
Promotes mental wellness for everyone, both day to day and in times of crisis, through education, advocacy, and support.
NATIONAL ALLIANCE ON MENTAL ILLNESS (NAMI)
www.nami.org (800) 950-NAMI, (800) 950-6264
America's largest grassroots mental health organization dedicated to improving the lives of persons living with severe mental illness and their families.
SERVICE PROGRAM FOR OLDER PEOPLE - SPOP
www.spop.org (212 787-7120)
SPOP IS dedicated to enhancing the quality of life of adults age 55 and older and to fostering their independent living through the delivery of comprehensive mental health and supportive services, advocacy, and education.
NYC-WELL (1-888-692-9355) is your connection to free, confidential mental health support 24/7. Speak to a counselor via phone, text or chat and get access to mental health and substance misuse services. For more information click here: NYC-WELL
LIVEOnNY (formally Council of Senior Citizen Centers and Services - CSCS)
49 West 45th Street, NYC 10036
The mission of LiveOnNY is to champion rights of older adults to make NYC a better place to live by advocating for policy change to further the interests of senior centers and agencies in New York City and by developing new ideas that take the form of advocacy policy and program development. One program, LiveOn NY Benefits Outreach Program, includes a team of benefits specialists that visit senior centers, libraries, and other CBOs throughout the city to screen and assist older adults with benefits that help to pay for food, rent, and medicine (SNAP, SCRIE,
NATIONAL ELDER LOCATOR
The Call Center and serves as an essential, trusted gateway to help older adults, caregivers and aging/health professionals navigate the maze of aging programs and services, as well as to assist them in identifying and accessing the resources that match their needs best.
NEW YORK STATE WIDE SENIOR ACTION COUNCIL- NYSWSAC
www.nysenior.org (800) 333-4374NYSWSAC provides direct service through a helpline and counseling services and provides information to educate the community as well as state and federal policymakers on issues of importance to older New Yorkers.
SAGE – SERVICES AND ADVOCACY FOR GLBT ELDERS
Sage is dedicated to improving the lives of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT) older adults. Our mission is to lead in addressing aging issues related to LGBT community.
Multi-lingual 24/7 Helpline: (800) 272-3900 TDD: (866) 403-3073
A national organization with local chapters that provides education and support to all who are affected by the disease, funds Alzheimer’s research, and works to reduce the risk of dementia by promoting brain health.
ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE AND RELATED DISORDERS, NYC, INC.
24 HOUR HOTLINE (646)744-2900
The organization still provides free information, assistance and support for those with Alzheimer's disease and related dementias and their families.
Alzheimer’s & Related Dementias
New York Memory Center
718-499-7701 - 199 14th Street, Brooklyn, New York
The NY Memory Center’s mission is to help older adults in Brooklyn with Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias to maintain and/or improve their level of functioning so they can enjoy their later years. The Center provides 2 sessions daily of onsite care for dementia patients. In addition, there is an active caregivers’ support program.
AMERICAN CANCER SOCIETY
www.cancer.org (800) ACS-2345
Fights cancer through programs of research, education, patient service, advocacy, and rehabilitation. Local services educate the public about cancer prevention, early detection, treatment, survival, and quality of life.
AMERICAN DIABETES ASSOCITAION
www.diabetes.org (800) DIABETES / (800) 342-2383)
Includes diabetes research, information, and advocacy and education about all kinds of diabetes as well as information on nutrition, exercise/weight loss, a risk test, and help for recently diagnosed.
AMERICAN FOUNDATION FOR THE BLIND – SENIOR SITE
Designed to encourage aging adults with eye diseases to live independently and productively. Connects seniors, family members, and caregivers to local services and showcases a wide range of assisted living products available to people with vision loss. It also contains information on the resources and tools needed to continue to read, shop, cook, manage finances, and go out with friends.
AMERICAN HEART ASSOICATION
www.americanheart.org (800) AHA-USA1 / (800) 242-8721
National health agency aimed at preventing, detecting, and treating cardiovascular diseases and strokes. Website offers education about heart disease and health, information on learning CPR and links to local chapters and events.
AMERICAN PARKINSON DISEASE ASSOCIATION
www.apdaparkinson.org (800) 223-2732
Aims to "ease the burden and find a cure" for Parkinson's disease, focusing on research, patient support, education, and raising public awareness of the disease. Website includes links to local resources.
AMERICAN STROKE ASSOCIATION
www.strokeassociation.org (888) 4STROKE / (888) 478-7653
The division of the American Heart Association that's solely focused on reducing disability and death from stroke through research, education, fundraising, and advocacy.
www.arthritis.org (800) 283-7800
Supports the more than 100 types of arthritis and related conditions with advocacy, programs, services, and research. Website provides information on disease and treatment, as well as tools for better functioning and referrals to local chapters.
www.cancercare.org (800) 813-HOPE or (212) 712-8400
Provides free, professional support services, including counseling, education, financial assistance, and practical support for anyone affected by cancer.
NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE - CANCER INFORMATION SERVICES
www.cancer.gov (800) 4-CANCER
Provides the latest and most accurate cancer information.
NATIONAL KIDNEY FOUNDATION
www.kidney.org (800) 622-9010
A voluntary health organization which seeks to prevent kidney and urinary tract diseases, improve the health and well-being of individuals and families affected by these diseases, and increase the availability of all organs for transplant.
NATIONAL OSTEOPOROSIS FOUNDATION
www.nof.org (800) 231-4222
A voluntary health organization whose mission is to prevent osteoporosis, to promote lifelong bone health, to help improve the lives of those affected by osteoporosis and related fractures, and to find a cure through programs of awareness, education and training, advocacy, and research.
NATIONAL PARKINSON FOUNDATION
www.parkinson.org (800) 327-4545
Supports Parkinson-related research, patient care, education, training, and outreach. Website includes information about treatment, maintaining wellness, finding a physician, clinical trials, and caregiver resources.
TEAL (Tell Every Amazing Lady About Ovarian Cancer)
TEAL'smission is to promote public awareness and education of the signs, symptoms and risk factors of Ovarian Cancer, while providing support to survivors and raising funds for research in order to find the cure.
Helen Keller Services
Adaptive Living Program. Helping individuals aged 55 and over with vision loss, stay independent and safe in their homes and communities.
Charnora Simon-Tavares Business Card
Legal Blindness Application Form
Andrew Heiskell Braille & Talking Book Library
40 West 20th Street, New York, NY 10011
Heiskell Library is the only NYC library created to serve people with print disabilities. It offers many programs and services for people with visual and dexterity issues who have problems reading traditional books. Learn more at
National Library Service
National Library Service is a free braille and talking book library service for people with temporary or permanent low vision, blindness, or a physical disability that prevents them from reading or holding the printed page.